/ JPA 2.0

JPA 2.0, Hibernate, HSQLDB, and Google Guice

Today's software recipe includes the following main ingredients (as Maven artifacts) Guice, Hibernate, JPA, HSQLDB, FEST-Assert, Apache Commons Lang, JUnit which we are going to put and mix in Eclipse 3.7.2 pot. Our goal would be a simple one: persist something in HSQLDB using JPA and Hibernate as underlying implementation; take advantage of Guice for Context and Dependency Injection (CDI) and test what we've done with JUnit, FEST-Assert and HSQLDB Manager. For a start here is the pom.xml relevant portion which you may want to include:


Since we need something to persist in our database let's create a very simple Project entity having only an identifier and a name fields. Here is how it looks like:

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.entity;

import javax.persistence.Column;
import javax.persistence.Entity;
import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
import javax.persistence.Id;
import javax.persistence.NamedQuery;
import org.apache.commons.lang.builder.EqualsBuilder;

@Entity(name = "project")
public class Project {

    private Long id;
    private String name;

    public Project() {
	// JPA needs empty constructor
    public Project(String projectName) {
	this.name = projectName;

    public Long getId() {
	return id;

    public void setId(Long id) {
	this.id = id;

    public String getName() {
	return name;

    public void setName(String name) {
	this.name = name;
    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
	if (obj == this) {
	    return true;

	if (!(obj instanceof Project)) {
	    return false;
	Project theOtherObject = (Project) obj;
	EqualsBuilder equalsBuilder = new EqualsBuilder();
	equalsBuilder.append(theOtherObject.name, this.name);

	return equalsBuilder.isEquals();

Next we need a data access objet (DAO) :

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.dao;

import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.entity.Project;

public interface IProjectDao {
    void save(Project project);

... and its implementation (which we are going to keep short and simple):

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.impl;

import javax.inject.Inject;
import javax.persistence.EntityManager;

import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.dao.IProjectDao;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.entity.Project;

public class ProjectDao implements IProjectDao {

    private EntityManager entityManager;

    public void save(Project project) {

Here comes our service which will do the business logic:

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service;

public interface IProjectService {
    void create(String projectName);

... and its implementation:

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.impl;

import javax.inject.Inject;

import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.dao.IProjectDao;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.entity.Project;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.IProjectService;

public class ProjectService implements IProjectService {

    private IProjectDao projectDao;

    /** @{inheritDocs */
    public void create(String projectName) {
	projectDao.save(new Project(projectName));

So far so good. We do need some plumbing though. Within the scope of our small recipe we have two dimensions of plumbing we have to consider. One of them is the CDI and since we use Guice in our example we have to create a module keeping the dependency bindings, here it goes:

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest;

import javax.inject.Singleton;
import javax.persistence.EntityManager;
import javax.persistence.EntityManagerFactory;
import javax.persistence.Persistence;

import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.dao.IProjectDao;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.dao.impl.ProjectDao;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.IProjectService;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.impl.ProjectService;

import com.google.inject.AbstractModule;
import com.google.inject.Provides;

public class DBModule extends AbstractModule {

    private static final ThreadLocal<EntityManager> ENTITY_MANAGER_CACHE = new ThreadLocal<EntityManager>();

    public void configure() {

    public EntityManagerFactory createEntityManagerFactory() {
	return Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("db-manager");

    public EntityManager createEntityManager(
	    EntityManagerFactory entityManagerFactory) {
	EntityManager entityManager = ENTITY_MANAGER_CACHE.get();
	if (entityManager == null) {
	    ENTITY_MANAGER_CACHE.set(entityManager = entityManagerFactory
	return entityManager;

The second aspect of our concerns is the JPA. In order for JPA to be glued with its implementation (in our case Hibernate), we need a persistence.xml file located within META-INF directory in the classpath of our Java application. Since we use Maven, I'm going to put the persistence.xml file in src/main/resources/META-INF/persistence.xml. The actual content of the file is:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<persistence xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence"
	xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/persistence/persistence_1_0.xsd"

	<persistence-unit name="db-manager" transaction-type="RESOURCE_LOCAL">

			<property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.driver" value="org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver" />
			<property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.url" value="jdbc:hsqldb:hsql://localhost/tmp/testdb" />
			<property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.user" value="sa" />
			<property name="javax.persistence.jdbc.password" value="" />
			<!-- if this is true, hibernate will print (to stdout) the SQL it executes, 
				so you can check it to ensure it's not doing anything crazy -->

			<property name="hibernate.show_sql" value="true" />
			<!-- since most database servers have slightly different versions of the 
				SQL, Hibernate needs you to choose a dialect so it knows the subtleties of 
				talking to that server -->
			<property name="hibernate.dialect" value="org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect" />
			<!-- this tell Hibernate to update the DDL when it starts, very useful 
				for development, dangerous in production -->
			<property name="hibernate.hbm2ddl.auto" value="update" />

Here are some important stuff:

  1. On line 7 we use the db-manager which is the same as in our DBModule.createEntityManagerFactory()

  2. On line 12, we've specified the URL of our database : jdbc:hsqldb:hsql://localhost/tmp/testdb which is important since we have to actually have a HSQLDB running. I've used an Eclipse launcher to run HSQLDB with the following program arguments: --database.0 file:/tmp/testdb --dbname.0 testdb. In case you don't know how to create such an Eclipse launcher you can follow this link

And last but not least our test:

package org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.impl;

import static org.fest.assertions.Assertions.assertThat;

import java.util.List;

import javax.persistence.EntityManager;

import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.DBModule;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.entity.Project;
import org.honeysoft.hsqldbtest.service.IProjectService;
import org.junit.Test;

import com.google.inject.Guice;
import com.google.inject.Injector;

public class TestProjectService {

    public void shouldPersistProject() throws Exception {
	Injector injector = Guice.createInjector(new DBModule());
	IProjectService projectService = injector
	EntityManager entityManager = injector.getInstance(EntityManager.class);

	String projectName = "honeysoft";

	// WHEN
	// THEN
	List<Project> resultList = entityManager.createNamedQuery(
		Project.GET_ALL, Project.class).getResultList();

	assertThat(resultList.contains(new Project(projectName))).isTrue();

Well, more or less that's it. If you want you can take advantage of HSQLDB Database Manager. One way to run it is via Eclipse launcher. You don't need any other dependency within you project in order to run it (except for hsqldb). Create a new Java Application Eclipse launcher where as a Project you choose the one which have the hsqldb as a Maven dependency and in Main class you provide org.hsqldb.util.DatabaseManagerSwing.

Acknowledgements goes to these guys for their work and to the open-source community without which this post would not take place:

Ivan Hristov

Ivan Hristov

I am a lead software engineer working on software topics related to cloud, machine learning, and site reliability engineering.

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